Showing posts with label Type 2 Diabetes. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Type 2 Diabetes. Show all posts

Diabetes Test and Control

What is Diabetes?

Diabetes is a defect in the body's ability to convert glucose to energy. It is caused due to insufficient production of glucose by the pancreas. In diabetes patients, the production of glucose is impaired.

What are the symptoms of Diabetes?

Patients with Type-1 diabetes usually develop symptoms over a short period of time, and the condition is often diagnosed in an emergency setting.
Symptoms of type 1 diabetes:
  • Increased thirst
  • Fatigue
  • Nausea
  • Increased urination
  • Weight loss in spite of increased appetite
  • Vomiting
However, because Type-2 diabetes develops slowly, some people with high blood sugar experience no symptoms at all.
Symptoms of type 2 diabetes:
  • Increased thirst
  • Impotence in men
  • Increased appetite
  • Increased urination
  • Blurred vision
  • Fatigue
  • Slow-healing infections

How to diagnose diabetes?

The diagnosis of diabetes is made by a simple blood test measuring blood glucose level. Usually blood glucose level tests are repeated on a subsequent day to confirm the diagnosis. Your health care team may also request that you have a glucose tolerance test. If two hours after taking the glucose drink your glucose level is 200 or above, you will be diagnosed as having diabetes.

How can I control diabetes?

  • Gather all the information about diabetes, its symptoms and causes
  • Check your blood glucose level regularly
  • If find any symptom of diabetes, visit your health care team for diagnosis of diabetes
  • Ask your health care team about how to check blood glucose level at home
  • Stop smoking
  • Exercise daily
  • Follow a healthy meal plan
  • Check your vision at regular intervals, If found blurred visit your health care team
  • Check your feet regularly for checking the occurrence of diabetes
  • If you are diabetic, monitor you diabetes regularly
  • Follow instructions of health care team strictly
  • Avoid sweet ingredients, use sugar free food

Can diabetes be cured?

As yet, there is no treatment for either type of diabetes, although there are many ways of keeping diabetes in control. Studies have shown that good control of blood glucose (blood sugar) is the key to avoid diabetic complications later.

What are the treatment options to cure diabetes?

Diabetes is incurable. The only option is to prevent ourselves from diabetes or to keep diabetes under control.

Is diabetes a hereditary disease?

You are at higher risk of Type 2 diabetes if you have a parent, brother or sister with diabetes.

Complications of Diabetes

If you have diabetes, you are much more likely to have a risk of stroke, heart disease, or a heart attack. In fact, 2 out of 3 people with diabetes die from stroke or heart disease. There are three conditions that make people with diabetes vulnerable to foot problems. These are vascular disease and foot deformities. About 30 percent of patients with Type 1 diabetes and 10 to 40 percent of those with Type 2 diabetes eventually will suffer from kidney failure. Diabetes also may cause damage to nerves in your body.

7 Diabetes Foot Care Tips

If you have diabetes information about how to manage your condition is vital to your well being.

If you don’t look after your feet you run the risk of developing sores or infections that could, in the worst case scenario, lead to amputations. As happened to my father-in-law. Reduce your risk of infection or amputation by incorporating these 7 foot care tips…

1) Check your feet daily – especially if you have low sensitivity or no feeling in your feet. Sores, cuts and grazes could go unnoticed and you could develop problems leading to amputations.

2) Don’t go around barefoot, even indoors. It’s easy to tread on something or stub your toes and cut yourself. Protect your feet with socks/stockings and

shoes/slippers.

3) Be careful if you have corns or calluses. Check with your doctor or podiatrist the best way to care for them.

4) Wash your feet daily in warm, NOT HOT water. And don’t soak your feet (even if you’ve been standing all day) because it could dry your skin and form cracks or sores.

5) Take extra care to dry your feet completely, especially between your toes. These are natural moisture traps – leaving them damp or wet could create all sorts of problems.

6) Exercise your legs and feet regularly. Even when sitting you can rotate your ankles; wiggle your toes or move your legs up and down. These all keep your blood circulation flowing and helps to minimize the risk of foot problems.

7) Get your feet professionally checked, at least once a year, for sensitivity and signs of any problems. You can usually arrange this when you have your annual check up for your AC1 levels (blood glucose levels over a 3-month period), blood pressure and cholesterol.

Take constant care of your feet. Get help from a relative or professional; Doctor, diabetic nurse or podiatrist if you are not able to bend when trimming nails or checking for sores. Taking these simple actions will help you reduce the risk of painful problems.

5 Ways To Manage Your Diet For Diabetes


Since my diagnosis with diabetes at the age of eleven, my own diet has changed dramatically. I maintain my current healthy weight with a great diet/eating plan. If you do plan on losing more than about a stone in weight then I would visit your doctor for more tips on how to do this without risk.

I’ve had diabetes for seven years now, but to tell you that how I maintain weight is perfect would be totally wrong of me. However, I can advise you to follow my steps because I know what works and what doesn’t. Before I really begin I must also say that I have been brought up by great parents who taught me to eat everything, and so I do! If there is something that you don’t like, there are loads of other diabetic recipes and ideas that you will eat and appreciate.

I am a university student and I like to buy fresh and organic produce from where I live. I believe that this is important because it can be the most good for your body and contain more nutrients and vitamins than most supermarket produce. I like to source food from my fortnightly farmers market in town, which sells amazing meat and dairy produce and fresh in season fruit and vegetables. This is another important thing to remember, that eating fruit and vegetables in their season means that they will taste better as well as doing you good. I have a lot of influence from Western European cuisine (mainly France and Italy) as you will tell, but I do not profess to be a chef and everything is easy to make and very convenient.

I have read countless diet books and diabetic recipe/diet books, and I came to a conclusion that I think really works. I fused all the good things from the diets (but not from every diet) and sort of put together my own one. I call this my Juvenile Diabetes Healthy Diet!

The “rules” that I would lay down are as follows:

1. Cut back on snacks and then change the type of snacks you eat.


Certainly my biggest downfall although it wasn’t really apparent to me. When I first started at University, I had little or no routine which meant that filling my day was difficult and popping into the kitchen for a snack, no matter how healthy it felt, was a regular occurence. This is one of the hardest things to do for some people, but establishing a great routine is essential to great diabetes care. The types of snacks to be eating are unsalted nuts, dried unsweetened fruit, fresh fruit, fresh vegetables (I love fresh red pepper and cucumber), dark chocolate (richer and nicer and you only want 2 squares usually).

2. Cut back on white flour and embrace wholemeal carbs.


This is the most essential part of your diet, and the thing that can show the biggest increase in loss of weight. Some diets in fact jsut focus on this point, and are very successful. Wholemeal (especially stoneground wholemeal) is so good for you and has so much more flavour in it that switching is much easier than you think. Most people are really surprised at the ranges you can get in you supermarket, again remember that the bread that is best for you is the one that is freshest with least perservatives or added ingredients. Also, brown or basmati rice is great with a lovely nutty texture. Wholemeal pasta is great and for your potatoes I would totally recommend the smaller new potatoes.

3. Stop drinking cocktails, start drinking wine.


Cocktails are full of sugar, colourants and preservatives. As a student I have had loads of practice at going out and not drinking cocktails, so my drink of choice is Malibu and Diet Coke if I feel I have to drink something and I make it last all night. I can then top up with Diet Coke (which has almost no sugar in it) and it looks as though I am drinking Malibu, who is to know. If you are out at a restaurant, red wine is much better than anything else you can order, (except water of course!) and it has been proven that the anti-oxidants in red wine are great for keeping a healthy heart. The recommended amount is one glass a day with your evening meal.

4. Start cooking more fruit and vegetables.


Fresh fruit and vegetables are a great way to get all the vitamins and minerals you need. And there are so many different ways in which to cook vegetables, but I find that raw is the best followed closely by steamed. Both of these ways preserve all their natural goodness as well. I will follow this post with another diabetes recipes post.

5. Drink more water.


I know you have heard people say this many times before, but the benefits of drinking more water are endless. A few tips on how to get more water into your day are firstly to put bottles of water at all the places you go in the house or work. So keep one in your desk, on your desk, a glass in the kitchen, the bedroom, the sitting room, etc. Try and drink all these glasses up and you will be well on your way to 8 glasses a day. The trick is to add a glass every few days or so, if you try to drink all that water in one go you won’t be so inclined to drink 8 glasses again, trust me! Have a go, it’s amazing how great you will feel.

What You Need To Know About Diabetes

According to the World Health Organization, a few decades back diabetes was an uncommon disease, in both developed and developing countries. Today, the story is different. It is currently estimated that over 143million people worldwide are affected by the disease. This figure is ever increasing, by 2020 over 220million people are expected to be living with diabetes, if the current trend continues.
In the United States alone, there are 18.2 million people (6.3% of the population) living with diabetes. While another 13million people have been diagnosed with diabetes. Unfortunately, 5.2milion (or nearly one third) are unaware that they have the disease.
The figure for Nigeria is not readily available, but it is estimated that over 1.5million people have diabetes in Nigeria.
In developed countries, most patients of diabetes are over sixty, but in developing countries, diabetes is found to affect people in their prime.

WHAT IS DIABETES?

Diabetes Mellitus (or simply diabetes) is derived from the Greek word 'Diabeinein', meaning 'To pass through' describing copious urination, and Mellitus from the Latin word meaning 'Sweetened with honey'. These two words signify sweetened urine or sugar in urine.
Diabetes is a disease in which the body does not produce or properly use Insulin. Insulin is a hormone that is needed, in the body, to control the rate at which sugar, starch and other food are converted into glucose required as energy for daily life. The hormone is produced and released
into the blood by an organ called 'Pancreas'. This insulin help to maintain the blood glucose level within a normal range. The World Health Organization (WHO) puts this normal range between
60 - 100mg/dl (Before taking any food for the day, hence this value is called Fasting Blood Glucose). In health, despite several demands for glucose in different situations, the blood glucose rarely exceeds this value.
After a meal the liver stores the glucose from the meal as glycogen and releases it into the blood in between meals. The role of insulin is the control of this storage and release of glucose. It ensures that the amount of glucose in the blood at every particular time does not go beyond or below the normal range.

TYPES OF DIABETES.

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), five classes of diabetes are recognized, these are; Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (IDDM) or Type I Diabetes, Non Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (NIDDM) or Type II Diabetes, Gestational Diabetes, Diabetes Insipidus and Bronze Diabetes.
INSULIN DEPENDENT/TYPE I DIABETES: This type of diabetes was initially called Juvenile onset diabetes because it affects adolescents and young adults. It is caused by a sudden failure of the pancreas to produce Insulin. It is, therefore, an acute disease, presenting with thirst, polyuria (passing large amount of urine), diuresis and weight loss. Type I diabetes is not common, it accounts for less than 10% of all diabetes cases.
NON-INSULIN DEPENDENT/ TYPE II DIABETES: This is the most prevalent type of diabetes, accounting for more than 80% of all diabetic cases. It is found in adults and the elderly. This type of diabetes develops gradually over a long period of time (unnoticed) and is characterized by insufficient insulin, deficient insulin in the blood or the inability of the body to utilize the insulin resent (Insulin resistance). Because of its slow and gradual occurrence, it is mostly undetected until one or more of its long-term complications appear.
Unlike in Type I Diabetes, the Insulin in the blood of a Type II diabetic may be normal or even high, but lacks the desired effect, due to insulin resistance, and this is prevalent among obese people.
GESTATIONAL DIABETES: This type of diabetes occurs during pregnancy and disappears after delivery, within 3weeks. An estimated 3% of all pregnancies are accompanied by gestational diabetes and almost half of these patients are prone to developing permanent diabetes later in life.
WHAT CAUSES DIABETES.
As with hypertension and other non communicable diseases, no clear cut cause(s) can be attributed to the most prevalent type of diabetes (Type II Diabetes, Type I diabetes being secondary to failure of the pancreas). However, some factors are known to increase one's chances of becoming diabetic and these are called risk factors. For example, indolent and well-fed populations are 2 - 20times more likely to develop type II diabetes than active and lean population of the same race. Some other factors known to increase one chances of getting diabetes include:
OBESITY: It is estimated that three quarter (¾) of all Type II diabetes patient are obese. Indolent and affluent lifestyles tend to contribute to this. It is believed that a 10kg loss of weight can reduce fasting blood sugar level by almost 50md/dl. An active lifestyle with frequent exercise is also known to increase Insulin sensitivity.
The International standard for measuring overweight and obesity is based on a value called BODY MASS INDEX (BMI). This value is derived by dividing the body weight (in Kilograms) by the square of height (in metres).
i.e. BMI = Body weight (Kg) / Height2 (Metres).
Note: 1ft = 0.305metres.
For adults, a BMI less than 25kg/m2 is preferred.
25 - 29kg/m2 is considered overweight and above 30kg/m2 is Obesity.
FAMILY HISTORY: A family history of diabetes increases one's chances of getting the disease. In such a situation, leading a healthy lifestyle and constant monitoring of one's blood sugar level becomes very important.
AGE AND RACE: Most Type II diabetes patient are over 40yrs at presentation of the disease. However, the proportion of increase in the incidence of this disease with age is higher for those with a family history of diabetes, obese and probably those leading sedentary lifestyles. Moreover, diabetes tends to be more prevalent among Africans, African Americans, Latinos, Native Americans and Asian Americans. Belonging to any of the races is a risk factor in itself.
HISTORY OF GESTATIONAL DIABETES: in a woman also increases her chances/possibility of developing permanent diabetes later in life.

YOU CAN PREVENT/DELAY DIABETES!

Diabetes have no permanent cure once it develops, it is managed al through life. But you can prevent ever falling into this life long pain. Before diabetes present in people, it is almost always preceded by a situation called PRE DIABETES. A situation where the blood glucose is higher than normal, but not yet enough to be diagnosed as diabetes. Saddening, however, you cannot know when you fall into this category, if you have not being monitoring your blood glucose regularly.
Pre Diabetes is itself a serious medical situation, though can still be reversed by making changes in diet pattern and increasing physical activity. To determine one's blood sugar a test called Fasting Blood Glucose has to be conducted. This test measures the amount of glucose (sugar) in one's blood before taking any meal for the day. It is measured in milligrams per deciliter (mg/dl).
A value below 100mg/dl is generally accepted to be normal, while a value greater than 100mg/dl but less than 120mg/dl is not full diabetes yet, so it is regarded as Pre diabetes. An individual with a pre diabetes blood glucose level need to take urgent steps to reduce his blood glucose or risk life long diabetes.
It should be emphasized, however, that the racial and genetic factors predisposing to diabetes are still beyond human comprehension and control. It makes common sense, therefore, to reduce all human controllable factors to the barest minimum. Most of these factors have to do with social occupational and diet habits.

The following tips can help reduce your diabetes risk:

* Reduce weight. Obesity seems to be the single most significant factor in diabetes. Reducing body weight and fat and maintaining an average body weight is very essential. To this end a body mass index (BMI) less than 25kg/m2 for males and less than 24kg/m2 for females is recommended.
* Increase Physical Activity. It is an established fact that diabetes is more common among people that lead a sedentary affluent lifestyle. Simple dynamic exercises like brisk walking for 30-50mins daily or 3-5times weekly has been shown to be very helpful. Exercise reduces bodyweight and fat, increases functionality of the heart, reduces the chances of diabetes and also boosts emotions and healthy living.
* Cut down or cut out alcohol. Alcoholic intake of more than 2units per day has been shown to adversely affect the body. Alcohol being an addictive drug makes it very difficult to maintain a definite amount of intake for a long time. It is better therefore to strive to cut out alcohol completely.
* Avoid Smoking. Cigarette smoke has been shown to contain several poisonous substances. Cigarette smoking and alcohol have been related to several disease. Stopping smoking will definitely reduce the chances of several other ailments apart from diabetes.
* Lean good eating habits, such as;
* Cut down on fatty food and junks
* Eat more of fish and poultry (without the skin is better).
* Garlic reduces blood pressure cholesterol; add it to your meal plan once in a while.
* Cut the number of eggs you take to 3- 4 weekly (better boiled than fried).
* Reduce salt intake to less than 5.8grams daily.
* Eat more of vegetables and fibre rich food, especially fruits.
* Finally, constantly monitor your fasting blood glucose, as this is the only way to know when you are getting into trouble.

CONCLUSION

Diabetes and Hypertension being so interlinked requires a comprehensive plan of care, and this revolves round one's dietary habits, social and environmental factors. Several lifestyle changes like regular exercise, maintaining a moderate body weight, reduction of fat intake and high fibre diet all help to live a normal healthy life. These measures are known to increase insulin sensitivity and also reduce blood pressure.
Conclusively, it is very important to create a more health conscious individuals in the populace. A people who practically believe that it is better and cheaper to prevent an illness than to treat it, when it has become stronger. Moreover, preventive health cannot be divorced from regular medical checks, as this two go hand in hand. There is no way to detect several non-communicable diseases without undergoing regular medical checks. The importance of these checks cannot be over emphasized.
Be alive to your health. Know your Blood glucose values and live a healthier life free from the pains of diabetes.

Diabetic Nutrition - Meal Planning In Action

Diabetic nutrition, diet, and weight control are the foundation of diabetes management. The most objective in dietary and nutritional management of diabetes is control of total caloric intake to maintain a reasonable body weight and stabilize the blood glucose level. Success of this alone is often with reversal of hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes. However, achieving this goal is not always easy. Because nutritional agreement of diabetes is so complex and a registered dietitian who understands diabetes management has major responsibility for this aspect of therapeutic plan. Nutritional management of diabetic patient includes the following goals stated by American Diabetes association, Evidence-Based Nutrition Principles and Recommendations for the Treatment and Prevention of Diabetes and Related Complications, 2002:
  • Provide all the essential food constituents like vitamins and Minerals needed for optimal nutrition.
  • Meeting Energy needs
  • Maintaining reasonable weight
  • Avoidance of huge daily fluctuations of blood glucose level, with blood glucose level close to normal as is safe and practical to reduce risk or prevent the possibility of complications
  • Decrease serum lipid levels to reduce the risk of macro-vascular complication
For those diabetic people who require insulin to help control blood glucose levels, maintaining as much consistency as possible in the amount of calories, and carbohydrates ingested at the different meal time is essential. Additionally, precision in the approximate time intervals between meals with the addition of snacks as necessary helps in preventing the hypoglycemic reaction and maintaining the overall glucose control.
For obese with type 2 diabetes, weight loss is the key treatment. Obesity associated with an increase resistance of insulin is also a main factor in developing type 2 diabetes. Some obese who requires insulin or oral anti diabetic agents to control blood glucose levels may be able to reduce or eliminate the need for medication through weight loss. A weight loss as small as 10% of total weight may significantly improve blood glucose. In other instances wherein one is not taking insulin, consistent meal content or timing is not as critical. Rather, decreasing the overall caloric intake assume most importance. However, meals should not be skipped. Pacing food intake throughout the day places more manageable demands on the pancreas.
Long-term adherence to meal plan is one of the most challenging aspects of diabetes management. For the obese, it may be more realistic to restrict calories only moderately. For those who have lost weight, maintaining the weight loss may be difficult. To help diabetic people incorporate new dietary habits into lifestyle, diet education, behavioral therapy, group support and ongoing nutrition counseling are encouraged.
Diabetic Nutrition Meal Plan
Diabetic Meal plan must consider one's own food preferences, lifestyle, usual eating times, ethnic and cultural background. For those who are under intensive insulin therapy, there may be greater flexibility in timing and content of meals by allowing adjustments in insulin dosage for changes in the eating and exercise habits. Advances in insulin management permit greater flexibility schedules than previously possible. This in contrast to the older concept of maintaining a constant dose of insulin and requiring the a diabetic person to adjust his schedule to the actions and duration of the insulin.
The first step about meal planning is thorough review of a diet history to identify eating habits and lifestyle. A careful assessment of weight loss, gain or maintenance should also be undertaken. In most circumstances, those with type 2 diabetes requires weight reduction.

Diabetic meal Planning [The Making]

In teaching about meal planning, you must coordinate with a registered dietitian and if possible he must use educational tools, materials and approaches so you can fully grasp the idea of your nutritional requirements. Your initial education approaches the significance of consistent eating habits, the relationship between the food and insulin and the provision of an individualized meal plan. Then in-depth follow-up sessions which focuses on management skills, such as eating at the restaurants, reading food labels and adjusting the meal plan for exercise, illness and special occasion. An instance like there is an aspect of meal planning such as the food exchange system which may be difficult to learn or understand. You may ask him every meeting for clarification or might as well, leave him a message. Just remember that the food system provides a new way of thinking about the food rather than a new way of eating. Simplification as much as possible grants a good understanding during the teaching session and provides an opportunity to assess doubts and a need for repeat activities and information.
Caloric Requirements
Caloric requirements or your calorie-controlled diets are planned by means of calculating your energy needs (individual energy needs that varies in every person) and your caloric necessity based on your age, gender height and weight. Activity element is factored in to provide actual number of calories required for maintenance.
In the Diabetic Exchange List compiled by American Dietetic Association and American Diabetic association 2008, the appropriate amount of calorie controlled diets are depicted but you must approach a registered dietitian to closely assess you with your current eating habits and achieve realistic and individualized goals. This is so important because practically, developing a meal plan should be based on individual's usual eating habits and lifestyle to effectively control the glucose level as well as the weight loss maintenance. The priority for a young patient with type 1 diabetes, for example, should be a diet with enough calories to maintain normal growth and development. Initially, the target aim may provide a higher calorie to regain lost of weight.
Here is a reliable and simple Food Exchange List For Diabetic Meal Planning I got from Diabetes Teaching Center at University of California, San Francisco via Google.
Please Take note of all these and believe that there's no harm in trying!
Diabetic Nutrition Caloric Distribution
Diabetic nutrition in your diabetic Meal Plan also focuses on the percentage of calories that come from carbohydrates, proteins and fats. In general, carbohydrates have the greatest effect on blood glucose levels because they are more quickly digested and converted than other foods.

Carbohydrates

The American Diabetes Association recommends that for all levels of caloric intake, 50% to 60% of calories should be derived from carbohydrates, 20% to 30% from fats and remaining 10% to 20% from protein. Carbohydrates are consisted of sugar and starch. Most of the carbohydrates that are generally consumed came from starch, fruits and milk. Vegetable has also some carbohydrate. All carbohydrates should be eaten in moderation to prevent postprandial high glucose level. Foods high in carbohydrates such as sucrose are not totally eliminated from the diet but should be taken up in moderation up to 10% total calories only because these foods are typically high in fats and lack in vitamins, minerals and fibers.
Carbohydrate counting method is very important because it makes you conscious about your approximate amount of serving. The more carbohydrates you ingested, the more your blood glucose goes up. It is also a tool use in diabetic management because carbohydrates are the main nutrients in the food that influence the blood glucose level. This technique provides flexibility in food choices, can be less complicated and allows more accurate management with multiple daily insulin injections. When developing a diabetic meal plan using carbohydrate counting, all food sources should be considered. Once digested, 100% of your carbohydrate intake are converted to glucose. Around 50% of protein foods (meat,fish and poultry) are also converted to glucose. The amount of carbohydrates in foods is measured in GRAMS so you have to know which foods contain carbohydrates,learn to estimate the number of grams of carbohydrates in each food you eat and sum up all the grams of carbohydrates from every food you eat in order to get your total intake in a day. Examples of common food that contains carbohydrates; potatoes, legumes (e.g peas), corn, grains, dairy products (e.g milk and yogurt), snack foods and sweets (e.g cakes, cookies, deserts), and Juices (soft drinks, fruit drinks, energy drinks with sugar).
Lets say, you aim 50% of your total calories must come from carbohydrates. One gram of carbohydrates is about 4 calories. So, divide the number of calories you want to get from carbohydrates by 4 to get the number of grams. Example, you aspire to eat 2000 calories a day and get 50% of calories from carbohydrates.
Computation:
  • 0.50 x 2000 calories = 1000 calories
  • 1000 / 4 = 250 grams of carbohydrates
Take note that there are people who has lower tolerance of physical activity and there are also those who needs low-calorie diets and therefore, the carbohydrates need in every person really varies. In order to further master your caloric intake and your diet, feel free to contact a professional dietitian.
In terms of estimation on the amount of carbohydrates in every serving, you can refer to Food Exchange List or here are some examples taken from the food exchange list:
These Foods contain 15 grams of each serving:
  • Biscuit - 1 (1 1/2 inches across)
  • Bun (hot dog or hamburger) - 1/2 bun
  • Pancake (1/4 inch thick) - 1 (4 inches across)
  • Pita bread - 1/2 pocket ( 6 inches across)
  • Waffle -1 (4 inch square or 4 inches across)
  • Cooked barley 1/3 cup
  • Cooked Pasta - 1/3 cup
  • Cooked quinoa 1/3 cup
  • Cooked white or brown rice - 1/3 cup
  • Cassava - 1/3 cup
  • Corn 1/2 cup
  • Green Peas - 1/2 cup
  • Animal Crackers 8 crackers
  • Rice cakes, 4 inches across 2
  • Dried Apple 4 rings
  • blueberries 3/4 cup
  • dates 3
  • Fruit cocktail 1/2 cup
  • Mango juice 1/2 cup or 1/2 small
  • papaya 1 cup cubed (8oz)
  • Grape Juice - 1/3 cup
Although carbohydrate counting is now commonly used for blood glucose management of type 1 and type 2 diabetes, to some extent it affects the blood glucose to different degrees regardless of equivalent serving size. Thus, you have to be consciously noticing the fluctuations of your own blood glucose level and take action against any warning signs.
Diabetic Food Pyramid
The Diabetic Food Pyramid is another tool use to develop meal plan. It is commonly utilize for those with type 2 diabetes who have difficulty in abiding with calorie controlled diet. The food pyramid is consist of six food groups: 1.Breads, grains and other starches; 2. Vegetable (non-starchy vegetables); 3. Fruits; 4. Milk; 5. Meat, meat substitutes and other proteins; and 6. Fats, oils and sweets. The pyramid shape was chosen to emphasize that the foods in the largest area, the base of the pyramid (Starches, fruits and vegetables) are the lowest in calories and fats and highest in fiber and should make up the basis of the diet. For those with diabetes and as well as the general population, 50% to 60% of daily caloric intake must be from these three groups. As you move up the pyramid, foods higher in fats (particularly saturated fats) are illustrated; these foods should account for a smaller percentage of daily caloric intake. The very top of the pyramid comprises of fats, oils and sweets that should be sparingly by the people with diabetes to attain weight and blood glucose control and to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease.
Fats and Diabetes
The recommendation regarding the fat content for the diabetic diet include both reducing the total percentage of calories from far sources to less than 30% of the total calorie and limiting the amount of saturated fats to 10% of total calories. Additional recommendations include limiting the total intake of dietary cholesterol to less than 30 mg/day. This approach may reduce risk factors such as elevated serum cholesterol levels, which are associated with the development of coronary heart disease, the leading cause of death and disability among people with diabetes. The meal plan may include the use of some non animal sources of protein to help reduce saturated fats and cholesterol intake. In addition, the amount of protein intake may be reduced to those who have early signs of renal disease.
Fiber Has a Lowering Glucose power
The use of fiber in diabetic diets has received an increased attention as the experts study the effects on diabetes of a high carbohydrate, high fiber diet. This type of diet plays a role in lowering the total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in the blood. Increasing fiber diet may also improve blood glucose and decrease the need for exogenous insulin.
There are two types of dietary fibers: soluble and insoluble. Soluble fibers in foods such as legumes, oats and some fruits plays more of a role in lowering blood glucose and lipid levels than does insoluble fiber. Soluble fiber is thought to be related to the formation of a gel in the gastrointestinal tract. This gel slows stomach emptying and the movement of food in the upper digestive tract. The potential glucose lowering of the fiber may be cause by the slower rate of glucose absorption from the foods that contain soluble fibers. Insoluble fiber is found in whole grain breads and cereals and in some vegetables. This type of fiber plays more roles in increasing stool bulk and preventing constipation.
One risk involving the increase of fiber intake is that it may require adjustment of insulin dosage or oral anti diabetic agents to prevent hypoglycemia. If fiber is added or increase in the meal plan, it should be done gradually and with the actual consultation with a dietitian.
Misleading Labels
Food labeled as "sugarless" or "sugar-free" may still provide calories equal to the equivalent sugar-containing products if they are made with nutritive sweeteners. Hence, for weight loss, these products may not always be useful. Additionally, you must 'not' consider them as "free" to be eaten in unlimited quantity because they may elevate your blood sugar. Foods labeled "dietetic" are not necessarily reduced calorie foods. They may be lower in sodium or have other special dietary uses. They may still contain significant amounts of sugar or fats. Snack foods with labels like "Health Foods" may often contain carbohydrates like honey, brown sugar, and corn syrup. Additionally, these supposedly healthy snacks frequently has saturated vegetable fats, hydrogenated vegetable fats or animal fats which may be contraindicated if you have elevated blood lipids level.
So read the nutritional labels carefully to count the nutrients that your food contains...
Sweeteners
Using sweeteners can be acceptable for the diabetic people especially if it assists their overall dietary adherence. Moderation in the amount of sweetener used is encouraged to avoid potential adverse effect. There are two main types of sweeteners: nutritive and non-nutritive. The nutritive sweeteners contain calories and non-nutritive sweeteners have few or no calories in the amounts normally used.
Nutritive sweeteners include fructose (fruit sugar), sorbitol and xylitol. They are not calorie free; they provide calorie in amounts similar to those in sucrose (table sugar). They cause less elevation in blood sugar levels than sucrose and are often in "sugar-free" foods. Sweeteners containing sorbitol may have a laxative effect. Non-nutritive sweeteners have minimal or no calories. They are used in food products and are also available for table use. They produce minimal or no elevation in glucose level. Saccharin contains no calories. Aspartame (Nutra Sweet) is package with dextrose; it contains 4 calories per packet and losses sweetness with heat. Acesulfame-K (Sunnette) is also package with dextrose; it contains 1 calorie per packet. Sucralose (Splenda) is a newer non-nutritive, high intensity sweetener that is about 600 times sweeter than sugar. The Food and Drug administration has approved it for use in baked goods, non alcoholic beverages, chewing gums, coffee, confections, frosting and frozen dairy products.